1.4 – What is IP Address and DNS



How Internet Works?

Internet is a global network where all the devices are connected together with a single wire.

TCP/IP or Internet Protocol (IP) is used to communicate between the  system.

Internet connects billions of computers all around the globe to form network of networks. Every computer can connect to any computer on the Internet.

Learn more about the Internet from here

What is IP Address?

IP stands for Internet Protocol that is used in the internet to communicate between the systems.

All the Different Devices on the internet have unique addresses.

Like every phone sim has a unique phone number attached to it. Similarly, every computer on the internet has a unique address.

Every computer needs to have a unique address when connected to internet so that it is easily identified from the billions of computers.

IP Address is just a number that is unique to a specific network or computer.

It looks like this – 192.87.45.20

IP address has a format where number are separated with “.”.

IP address can also be compared with the email address. You don’t need to know the person or server location but just sending an email to that email address will be delivered to the right system on the internet.

What is IPV4 and IPV6?

IPV4 and IPV6 are just how the IP addresses are organised. It is the way to represent the IP address of a computer.

In IPV4, IP address are represented in number which is 32 bits long.

Eg: 192.87.45.20

In IPV6, IP address are represented in text and numbers format which is 128 bits long.

Eg: 3FF3:F200:8474:JL00:7633:1232:4294:IKLJ

As more computers added to the internet the need to have bigger IP address is solved by IPV6. IPV6 uses text and number combination to come up with more unique address.

Now with IPV6, we can have more unique combination that we can assign to the computer and identify them in the internet.

Find Your System IP Address

Step 1: Open the Command Prompt

Press Window Button + R (CMD + R) on Windows and Type “cmd”.

Press Enter to open the Command Prompt.

Step 2: Type ipconfig command

Type the command “ipconfig” on the command prompt.

Step 3: Verify the IP Address

Now verify the IPV4 and IPV6 IP address of your machine when connected to Internet.

This is your unique address of your computer.

Search IP Address of Other Systems

Type the Command “ping www.yahoo.com” to find the IP address of Yahoo.com Server in the same Command Prompt.

So, 124.108.103.103 is the IP address of Yahoo.com server.

What is DNS?

DNS stands for Domain Name System.

DNS is the English name or easy to remember name for your IP address.

The way we store the phone number in Contact List with a Name similarly we store the IP address with a name in the Domain Naming Servers.

To find out a IP address of Yahoo we typed “ping yahoo.com” and then it shows the IP address of Yahoo.

Yahoo.com is the Domain Name of the IP address 124.108.103.103

It is plain, simple and easy to remember name that we assign to our IP address which is difficult to remember.

There are many Domain Name Providers who can help us to buy the domain name for our IP address.

Some of the Domain Name Providers are:

You can buy the Domain Name for little price and need to be renewed every year or else you will lose that name.

Once you purchase the domain name then that is unique in the internet as well like IP address.

How DNS are registered?

These Domain Name Servers around the world has list of all the domain name and its corresponding IP address.

Once you purchase a Domain Name from the Domain Name provider and map your IP address with the Domain Name.

This new mapping is distributed and synced with all the Domain Name Server across the world so that everyone knows that for this Domain Name this is the IP address.

Once the sync is down then every DNS server can tell what is the IP address of your Domain Name.

That’s why when you map the IP address to the Domain name it will take 24 hours to sync with all the domain name servers across the world.

How DNS works?

When you type https://www.srinivasit.com/ in the Browser URL window.

The request is first sent to DNS server where your server IP address are searched.

If that DNS server does not know then it will ask around with other DNS server to find the IP address for that Domain Name.

Once the DNS server finds the IP address then it routes the message to that specific IP address server.

Exercise

Visit the two Domain Name providers and search for the domain name that you like is available or taken by others.

Technical Definitions

  • IP stands for Internet Protocol which is used in communication by the systems in the Internet.
  • Each system in the Internet has a unique address named as IP Address. Using IP address we can identify a computer in the internet.
  • IP address are represented with two types IPV4 and IPV6
  • IPV4 notation uses numbers separated with “.” which are 32 bits long
  • IPV6 notation uses numbers + text separated with “:” which are 128 bits long
  • DNS stands for Domain Name Server.
  • You buy a Domain Name from the Domain Name Providers and assign Domain name with the IP address.
  • Every Domain Name are unique and cannot be purchased twice.


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